Sep 28, 2022  
2016-2017 Undergraduate Catalog 
    
2016-2017 Undergraduate Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Course Descriptions


 

Accounting

  
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    ACTG 244. Accounting for Non-Business Majors


    3.00
    For non-business majors only. Introduces basic business and accounting topics such as revenue, investments, expenditures, liabilities, credit, cash management, and taxation. Heavy emphasis is placed on the measurement of operating performance, and interpretation and use of accounting data for organizational decision-making. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or permission of the instructor.
  
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    ACTG 302. Introduction to the Profession: Role of Accountants


    1.00
    This class relies heavily on discussions with practicing accountants in public accounting, industry and government. Topics include career preparation and the role of accountants in business and capital markets. Written assignments are used to enhance communication skills. Completion of both COB 241  and COB 242  with grades of “B” or better are the prerequisites, and COB 300 is the pre- or corequisite.
  
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    ACTG 303. Basic Spreadsheet Skills for Accountants


    1.00
    This class provides students with hands-on learning and practice with basic Excel skills necessary in the workplace. Topics include creating and printing professional documents, navigating through workbooks, creating and editing formulas, using basic logical and statistical functions, and creating charts. Prerequisite or Corequisite: ACTG 302  or permission of the department
  
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    ACTG 304. Advanced Spreadsheet Skills


    1.00
    This class provides students with hands-on learning and practice with advanced Excel skills. This class focuses on preparing students to become Microsoft Certified Application Specialists in Excel. Topics include customizing charts, using advanced financial, logical, and statistical functions, pivot tables and pivot charts, evaluation of formulas, and collaboration of workbooks. Prerequisite: Completion of ACTG 303  with a grade of “C-” or better.
  
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    ACTG 313. Accounting Information Systems


    3.00
    Covers the use of accounting systems for the collection, organization, analysis and reporting of accounting data. Topics include: internal controls, documentation of accounting systems, transaction processing cycles, auditing information technology, e-commerce, computer and information systems security and integration of business functions in the accounting process. ACTG 303   and ACTG 343  are the pre- or corequisites.
  
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    ACTG 343. Corporate Financial Report I


    3.00
    Provides a theoretical framework to explain and critically evaluate financial reporting by businesses. In addition to studying the authoritative standards for preparing financial statements, students develop the ability to read, use, analyze and interpret financial statements. Students gain an understanding that managers can shape the financial information communicated to investors and creditors. Prerequisite or Corequisite: ACTG 302  or permission of the department
  
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    ACTG 344. Corporate Financial Reporting II


    3.00
    Continues the development of a theoretical framework to read, use, analyze, interpret, explain and critically evaluate financial reporting by businesses. Selected topics include financial instruments, leases, pensions, deferred taxes, stockholders’ equity and other corporate reporting issues. ACTG 343  with a grade of “C-” or better is the prerequisite.
  
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    ACTG 377. Federal Income Tax Accounting


    3.00
    Designed to introduce students to the federal income tax system, including individual and business entity taxation. Topics include income, exclusions, deductions and property transactions. Also facilitates development of research skills. Prerequisite or Corequisite: ACTG 302  or permission of the department
  
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    ACTG 410. Auditing


    3.00
    A study of techniques available for gathering, summarizing, analyzing and interpreting the data presented in financial statements, and procedures used in verifying the fairness of the information. Also emphasizes ethical and legal aspects and consideration. Prerequisite: ACTG 313 , ACTG 303  and ACTG 344  with grades of “C-” or better.
  
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    ACTG 440. Advanced Information Technology for Accountants


    3.00
    This course is offered only for accounting majors seeking a minor in CIS. Topics include legacy systems, the systems development life cycle, telecommunications, distributed processing, networking, and information security, taught from an accounting perspective. ACTG 313  with a grade of “C-” or better and declared CIS minor are the prerequisites.
  
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    ACTG 445. Selected Accounting and Reporting Topics


    3.00
    Focuses on the development and use of financial information as it relates to business combinations, governmental and public not-for-profit entities, and transactions and statements denominated in foreign currencies. In the context of the global accounting environment, students critically evaluate U.S. generally accepted accounting principles as they pertain to the topics covered. ACTG 343  with a grade of “C-” or better is the prerequisite.
  
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    ACTG 475. Accounting Decision Making and Control


    3.00
    The study of cost accounting concepts and information used by business organizations to make strategic, organizational and operational decisions. Topics include the role of planning and control in attaining organizational goals and objectives; the relationship among cost structure, cost behavior and operating income; traditional and activity-based costing approaches to product costing; differential analysis in decision making; and ethical issues for accountants. Prerequisite: ACTG 343  with a grade of “C-” or better. Prerequisite or Corequisite: ACTG 304 .
  
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    ACTG 483. International Accounting and Financial


    3.00
    Designed to develop a fundamental knowledge of the assumptions, environmental considerations and techniques underlying the collection and reporting of financial information on an international scale. COB 300 is the prerequisite. Open to International Business Majors Only.
  
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    ACTG 490. Special Studies in Accounting


    1.00 - 6.00
    Designed to give capable students in accounting an opportunity to do independent study under faculty supervision. Admission only by recommendation of the instructor and permission of the director.
  
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    ACTG 492. Special Studies in Tax


    1.00 - 3.00
    Designed to give capable students in accounting an opportunity to do independent study under faculty supervision in the area of tax. Prerequisite: Recommendation of the instructor and permission of the director.
  
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    ACTG 493. Special Studies in Cost


    1.00 - 3.00
    Designed to give capable students in accounting an opportunity to do independent study under faculty supervision in the area of cost. Prerequisite: Recommendation of the instructor and permission of the director.
  
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    ACTG 499A. Honors


    1.00
  
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    ACTG 499B. Honors Thesis


    3.00
  
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    ACTG 499C. Honors


    2.00

Africana Studies

  
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    AFST 200. Introduction to Africana Studies [C4ge]


    3.00
    An introductory survey of basic theoretical concepts to analyze the Black experience, with special focus on the general historical process common to Africa and the African Diaspora. May be used for general education credit.
  
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    AFST 400. Selected Topics in Africana Studies


    3.00
    Selected topics are studied in depth. Course may be repeated when content changes.
  
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    AFST 488. African American Art


    3.00
    Crosslisted: ARTH 488 

    This course examines visual arts produced by people of African descent in the United States from the colonial period until the present. Course themes include debates about the relationship between racial identity and artistic production; the complex interchange between African-American art and the cultural traditions of Africa and Europe; black artists¿ engagement with popular representations of African Americans; and the intersection of race with class, gender, and sexuality.
  
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    AFST 489. Africana Studies Senior Research Experience


    1.00
    In this research-oriented experience, students design and complete research projects relevant to their interest in Africana Studies, as well as connect their projects as part of an 400-level course work and experiences within the Africana Studies minor. AFST 200 , senior standing and permission of the instructor are the prerequisites

Air Force ROTC

  
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    AIRS 100. Leadership Laboratory


    0.00
    This course is a mandatory laboratory in leadership and followership development for AFROTC cadets. As a complement to the air science classes, this laboratory focuses on applying leadership principles and understanding leaders’ responsibilities while emphasizing the benefits of practical experience. JMU students will take AFROTC classes at the University of Virginia for JMU credit. Corequisites: Any Air Force ROTC class. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor
  
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    AIRS 110. The Foundations of the United States Air Force


    1.00
    This course introduces the United States Air Force and Air Force Reserve Officers’ Training Corps. Topics include mission and organization of the Air Force, Officership and professionalism, military customs and courtesies, Air Force officer opportunities and communication skills. JMU students will take AFROTC classes at the University of Virginia for JMU credit. Students interested in joining Air Force ROTC should also register for AIRS 001 - Leadership Laboratory. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor
  
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    AIRS 120. The Foundations of the United States Air Force


    1.00
    This course introduces the United States Air Force and Air Force Reserve Officers’ Training Corps. Topics include mission and organization of the Air Force, Officership and professionalism, military customs and courtesies, Air Force officer opportunities and communication skills. JMU students will take AFROTC classes at the University of Virginia for JMU credit. Students interested in joining Air Force ROTC should also register for AIRS 0001 - Leadership Laboratory. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor
  
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    AIRS 210. The Evolution of Air and Space Power


    1.00
    This course examines general aspects of air and space power through a historical perspective, from the first balloons and dirigibles to the space age global positioning systems of the Persian Gulf War. Topics include Principles of War, Tenets of Air and Space Power, historical Air Force leaders, and employment of air and space power. JMU students will take AFROTC classes at the University of Virginia for JMU credit. Students interested in joining AIR Force ROTC should also register for AIRS 001 - Leadership Laboratory. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor
  
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    AIRS 220. The Evolution of Air and Space Power


    1.00
    This course examines general aspects of air and space power through a historical perspective, from the first balloons and dirigibles to the space age global positioning systems of the Persian Gulf War. Topics include Principles of War, Tenets of Air and Space Power, historical Air Force leaders, and employment of air and space power. JMU students will take AFROTC classes at the University of Virginia for JMU credit. Students interested in joining Air Force ROTC should also register for AIRS 001 - Leadership Laboratory. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.
  
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    AIRS 310. Concepts of Air Force Leadership and Management


    3.00
    This course studies leadership, management fundamentals, and professional knowledge, Air Force personnel and evaluation systems, leadership ethics, and communication skills required of Air Force junior officers. The class examines Air Force leadership and management situations, using case studies as a means of demonstrating and applying the concepts under consideration. JMU students will take AFROTC classes at the University of Virginia for JMU credit. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.
  
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    AIRS 320. Concepts of Air Force Leadership and Management


    3.00
    This course studies leadership, management fundamentals, and professional knowledge, Air Force personnel and evaluation systems, leadership ethics, and communication skills required of Air Force junior officers. The class examines Air Force leadership and management situations, using case studies as a means of demonstrating and applying the concepts under consideration. JMU students will take AFROTC classes at the University of Virginia for JMU credit. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor
  
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    AIRS 410. National Security Affairs/Preparation for Active Duty


    3.00
    This course examines the national security process, regional studies, advanced leadership ethics, and Air Force doctrine. Topics include the military as a profession, officership, military justice, civilian control of the military, preparation for active duty, and current issues affecting the military profession. JMU students will take AFROTC classes at the University of Virginia for JMU credit. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor
  
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    AIRS 420. National Security Affairs/Preparation for Active Duty


    3.00
    This course examines the national security process, regional studies, advanced leadership ethics, and Air Force doctrine. Topics include the military as a profession, officership, military justice, civilian control of the military, preparation for active duty, and current issues affecting the military profession. JMU students will take AFROTC classes at the University of Virginia for JMU credit. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor

American Studies

  
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    AMST 200. Introduction to American Studies [C2HQC]


    3.00
    This interdisciplinary course will highlight the student’s role in interrogating the cultural and political function of representations of America in literature, history, philosophy, religion, popular culture, music and art. Students will gain an understanding of why definitions of American identity matter and learn about the contemporary debates that inform the discipline of American Studies today. Questions about the changing role of national studies in the face of globalization are central. May be used for general education credit.
  
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    AMST 302. Immigrants in American Society


    3.00
    Immigrants today come to America from many countries, but because scholarly research had tended to concentrate on only a few of the largest nationality groups, the full range of immigrant experience has yet to be explored and documented. In this cross-disciplinary course, we will give special attention to two groups, Mexicans and Vietnamese, about whom much has been written, as examples of the varying ways that immigrants come to the U.S. and adapt to living here while maintaining important ties to their homelands and cultures. We will also consider the consequences of immigration for both the first and second generations of immigrants as well as for the communities that receive them, including the Central Shenandoah Valley.
  
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    AMST 303E. Religion and American Politics and Campaigns


    3.00
    We will survey the interaction between religions and political life in the United States, beginning with the colonial period and moving forward into the present. Part of our time will be spent examining the role of religion in politics and campaigns throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. During the days and weeks surrounding the Republican primaries, we will spend much of our time discussing the role of religion in the current presidential election cycle. We will use readings and media such as television, film, and the Internet to gain a fuller and clearer understanding of religion and modern campaigns.
  
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    AMST 490. Special Studies


    3.00
    Independent study of a topic appropriate to the interdisciplinary method of American studies.

Anthropology

  
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    ANTH 195. Cultural Anthropology [C4GE]


    3.00
    An introduction to the nature of culture and its relationship to language, economics, politics, kinship and other institutions in diverse cultures. The course also provides an overview of the theories, methods and ethical responsibilities involved in the study of cultural systems and ethnographic writing. May be used for general education credit.
  
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    ANTH 196. Biological Anthropology [C3T1G3]


    3.00
    An introduction to the origins, evolution and genetic variability of humans and their relationship to nonhuman primates. Examination of the fossil record, the relationship between biology and culture and human genetics are included. Theories and methods used in the study of biological anthropology are also introduced. May be used for general education credit.
  
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    ANTH 197. Archaeology


    3.00
    An introduction to the goals, methods, and theory of anthropological archaeology. The course examines the variety of techniques archaeologists use to reconstruct the past from material remains. Archaeological ethics and the impact of the past on contemporary society are also considered.
  
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    ANTH 201. The Discipline of Anthropology


    1.00
    This required course introduces students to the subdisciplines of cultural, biological, linguistic, and archaeological anthropology and the logic of their integration within the larger discipline of Anthropology. Students will be introduced to current research questions within Anthropology and how they are addressed from the perspective of the various subdisciplines. Anthropology Majors
  
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    ANTH 205. Buried Cities, Lost Tribes: the Rise and Fall of Early Human Societies [C2HQC]


    3.00
    This course takes an archaeological and comparative perspective on the origins of human institutions, including art, architecture, religion, centralized political formations and urban life. The development and collapse of early societies in multiple world regions, including Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, Mesoamerica and the Andes will be explored. May be used for general education credit.
  
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    ANTH 250. Anthropology of the American Southwest


    3.00
    This course examines the development of Southwestern societies from early hunter-gatherers to the Native American communities of today. Major issues of anthropological interest, such as the adoption of agriculture, the development of village life, migration and abandonment, the spread of religious “cults,” the extent of Mesoamerican influence, and the effects of the Spanish conquest are explored.
  
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    ANTH 265. Peoples and Cultures of Latin America and the Caribbean


    3.00
    Anthropological and historical perspectives on the cultures of Latin America and the Caribbean through such themes as colonialism, nationalism, ethnicity, development, aesthetic traditions, gender, religion and urban and rural resistance movements.
  
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    ANTH 280. Peoples and Culture of Sub-Saharan Africa


    3.00
    This is an introductory course emphasizing cultural diversity of sub-Saharan African societies. Basic anthropological concepts are used in analyzing African economics, political systems, marriage patterns and family organization, religious beliefs, and the impacts of colonialism and post-colonial development practices.
  
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    ANTH 295. People and Cultures of East Asia


    3.00
    This introductory course examines the peoples and cultures of the core East Asian countries: China, Japan and Korea. The course is organized around anthropological perspectives on topics such as nationalism, consumption, gender, ethnicity and development but also emphasizes the cultural, social and historical characteristics of various groups in these nations in addition to important cultural flows within region.
  
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    ANTH 300. The Anthropology of Food


    3.00
    This course explores anthropological approaches to food production, distribution, preparation, and consumption in the contemporary world. Topics include food preferences and taboos, food and the senses, ritual and identity, technological risks, diet and nutrition, cuisine and class, and the political economy of food. Prerequisite: Any lower level ANTH course or permission of instructor
  
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    ANTH 305. Language and Culture


    3.00
    Crosslisted: SCOM 305

    An introduction to linguistic anthropology. Explores the complex relationships between language and culture through topics such as language acquisition and socialization; language, thought and worldview; language and identity; multilingualism; how and why languages change; literacy; and the politics of language use and language ideologies.
  
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    ANTH 306. Japanese Society and Culture


    3.00
    Crosslisted: SOCI 306 

    This introductory course takes a critical and interdisciplinary approach to exploring Japan. We will apply Sociological, Anthropological, and Demographic perspectives to comparatively understand, analyze, and discuss Japanese society and culture. Students will read and discuss issues related to history, sociodemographic change, gender, work, social class, race/ethnicity, family, health care, and aging in Japanese society.
  
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    ANTH 312. North American Indians


    3.00
    A study of the nature of Indian societies occupying different environmental areas of North America at the time of earliest historic contact. Indian groups such as Shawnee, Mandan, Nuunamiut, Natchez, Creek, Iroquois and Sioux will be considered.
  
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    ANTH 313. Processes of Social and Cultural Change


    3.00
    Crosslisted: SOCI 313 

    Investigates the procedures through which a society operates and the manner in which it introduces and incorporates changes. Issues considered include: belief, innovation, directed change, coercive change, revitalization and revolution.
  
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    ANTH 315. Human Evolution


    3.00
    Offered every three semesters. An overview of the fossil record and other evidence for human evolution. Discusses the emergence of the hominids as a lineage distinct from other apes. Provides evidence for the evolution of bipedalism, tool use, hunting/gathering, major increases in brain size, language, and material culture and the hypotheses that have been developed to explain the emergence of these characteristics. ANTH 196  or BIO 114  and BIO 124 or permission of the instructor are the prerequisites
  
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    ANTH 316. Human Evolutionary Psychology


    3.00
    An exploration of human behavior from an evolutionary perspective. Emphasis is placed on the critical evaluation of adaptive hypotheses purported to explain fundamental human behaviors such as survival and mating strategies, reproduction and parenting, kinship and cooperation, dominance and aggression, cultural evolution, and religion. ANTH 196  is the prerequisite or permission of instructor.
  
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    ANTH 317. Primate Evolutionary Ecology


    3.00
    This course explores the interface between an organism and its environment, illustrated with examples from the primates. Behaviors related to feeding, moving, grouping, and socializing are considered from an evolutionary perspective. Topics to be discussed include feeding ecology, functional anatomy, the ecology of primate social systems, ranging behaviors, community ecology, and the role humans play in shaping primate communities. ANTH 196  is the prerequisite or permission of instructor.
  
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    ANTH 318. The Evolution of Primate Sexuality and Reproduction


    3.00
    A survey of non-human primate sexuality from an evolutionary perspective. Emphasis is placed on the diversity of behavioral, anatomical, and physiological aspects of mating and reproduction across the order Primates. Where appropriate, comparisons with human sexuality are made. ANTH 196  is the prerequisite or permission of instructor.
  
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    ANTH 319. Human Osteology


    3.00
    An analysis of the individual bones and teeth that comprise the human skeleton. Emphasis is placed on learning individual bones and teeth as well as the numerous osteological and dental landmarks that characterize them. Applied topics such as bone growth and the analysis of age, sex, stature, pathology and geographic ancestry will also be addressed. Prerequisite: ANTH 196  or permission of the instructor
  
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    ANTH 322. Human Variation and Adaptation


    3.00
    This course will assess human biology from an evolutionary and anthropological perspective, emphasizing an integrative, holistic understanding. The origin and current distribution of human biological variation will be explored, including geographic, sex, and individual variation. Health and disease, growth and development, aging, nutrition, and mental health will also be addressed. ANTH 196  is the prerequisite or permission of instructor.
  
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    ANTH 323. Anthropology and Photography


    3.00
    This course explores the anthropological use of photographic data for the description, analysis, communication and interpretation of human behavior. Topics include phenomenological, cross-cultural and historical understanding of still photography; the social life of photographs; visual cultural production and the consumption of photographs; and still photography after colonialism, globalization, and postmodernity.
  
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    ANTH 325. Aztec/Maya & Predeces


    3.00
    Survey of the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Maya and Aztec civilizations and the factors leading to their development, persistence and decline.
  
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    ANTH 327. Ancient North Amer Civil


    3.00
    Studies the emergence of Native American societies prior to historic contact. Emphasizes prehistoric developments in the eastern United States.
  
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    ANTH 331. Historical Archaeology


    3.00
    Crosslisted: HIST 331 

    This course introduces students to the purposes, subject matter, methodology, and historical background of the discipline of historical archaeology. Building on research issues and methodologies of anthropological archaeology and history, the multidisciplinary aspects of this field are introduced through field trips, projects, guest lectures, readings and classroom presentations. Previous archaeological course work or fieldwork is helpful, but not necessary. Prerequisite: ANTH 197 
  
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    ANTH 333. Celts, Viking and Tribal Europe: Art & Culture From 500 to 1100AD


    3.00
    Building a heritage of archaeology, art, history, material culture, mythology and literature the course introduces students to the cultures and traditions of the Celtic, Viking (Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish), and Germanic tribal and theocratic cultures that shaped the early civilizations of northern Europe, Britain, and Ireland from ca. 500 AD to 1100 AD.
  
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    ANTH 340. The Invention of Race


    3.00
    Offered every other year. Examines the historical and cultural construction of race in Western thought. Themes include the origins of racial thinking, the slave trade, race and religion, race and science, the ways race is implicated in colonialism and nationalism, and the relation between race and other social qualities, including gender, class, sexuality and ethnicity
  
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    ANTH 350. Magic/Witchcraft/Rel


    3.00
    Anthropological study of religion in society. The influence of religion on the development of social, legal, governmental and economic aspects of culture is emphasized.
  
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    ANTH 352. Birth Death Sex: Exploring Demography


    3.00
    Crosslisted: SOCI 352 

    Introduction to basic population concepts, issues and data. Age, sex, marital status, religion, social class and other population characteristics will be used to identify groups which differ significantly in their demographic behavior. Includes a review of some contemporary population concerns such as zero population growth, family planning and abortion. Prerequisite: Any lower level course in anthropology or sociology or permission of the instructor.
  
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    ANTH 360. Medical Anthropology


    3.00
    This course takes an anthropological approach to the study of health, illness, and healing; how do different cultural systems and social institutions influence the experience and interpretation of different bodily states? Material covers critical analyses of Western medicine and ethnomedicine in both specific cultural settings and their global circulation. Topics include disease epidemics, illness narratives, public health, suffering, pharmaceuticals, disability, and health care systems. Prerequisite: ANTH 195  or permission of the instructor.
  
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    ANTH 362. Evolution of the Human Brain


    3.00
    A review of the evolution of the brain, focusing on the human species. The fossil evidence and current controversies and theories about human brain evolution will be covered, including the possible role of language, tool use, sociality, and dietary shifts. Sex differences in brain and behavior, the evolution of consciousness, human ethics and morals will also be discussed. ANTH 196   is the prerequisite or permission of instructor.
  
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    ANTH 364. U.S./Latin American Borders


    3.00
    This course examines the experiences of Latin American migrants to the United States. It stresses cultural expression of migrant experiences and globalization processes, as well as North American responses to migration and the impact of official (U.S. and Latin American governments, international agencies) policies on local communities in Latin America. Prerequisite: one course on Latin America.
  
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    ANTH 366. Anthropology of War


    3.00
    This course examines the causes, conduct, and consequences of warfare in non-state societies using both ethnographic and archaeological data. Case studies drawn from throughout the world are used to examine topics such as the co-evolution of war and society, the impact of colonialism on native warfare, the process of making peace, and claims about the biological “inevitability” of war.
  
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    ANTH 368. Contemporary American Culture


    3.00
    Crosslisted: SOCI 368 

    This course analyzes contemporary American society in relation to popular cultural formations and representations. Cultural expressions found in music, literature, film, television, cyberspace and sports will be examined with respect to the values, sentiments, identity constructions, and lived experiences of differentially situated social actors.
  
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    ANTH 370. Topics in the Anthropolgy of Gender


    3.00
    This course examines the many ways in which gender is constructed and negotiated in different historical and social contexts. Topics will vary with the instructor to include both cultural and biocultural perspectives.
  
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    ANTH 373. Anthropological Perspectives On Environment and Development


    3.00
    This seminar provides a history of key ideas and figures in environmental anthropology, as well as examines why this field is, by necessity, interdisciplinary. Within this context, we will use specific case studies to examine ways in which the concepts and theories of “development” and “environment” have been produced, perpetuated, manipulated, and challenged in different geographic and politico-economic circumstances. Prerequisites: ANTH 195  or permission of the instructor.
  
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    ANTH 375. History of Theory in Sociocultural Anthropology


    3.00
    An examination of the major theoretical traditions in social and cultural anthropology. Important theoreticians and the historical contexts in which their work emerged are discussed. Fulfills the College of Arts and Letters writing-intensive requirement for the major. Prerequisite: ANTH 195  and Junior Standing
  
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    ANTH 376. Anthropology of Reproduction


    3.00
    This course provides students with a critical and cross-cultural perspective on human reproduction. Examining how individuals draw on social and symbolic resources to sort out complicated private decisions, we will discuss how reproductive experiences are embedded in local, national and transnational politics. Topics covered may include: cross-cultural perspectives on childbearing and childlessness, kinship, and the globalization of new reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization. Prerequisite: ANTH 195  or permission of the instructor.
  
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    ANTH 377. Space/Culture/Power


    3.00
    An introduction to social-scientific approaches to space. We will think critically about how people across cultures shape - and are shaped by - the spaces we occupy. Drawing on examples from around the world we examine the intersections of space, culture, and power through such topics as segregation, maps, architecture, prisons, schools, migration politics, and more. The course encourages students to think of space - and its intersections with culture and power - in new and sophisticated ways. Prerequisite: ANTH 195  or permission of the instructor.
  
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    ANTH 389. Ethnographic Experience in Dominica


    3.00
    This course is an anthropological case study of Dominica, an independent post-colonial island nation in the Eastern Caribbean. The course entails extensive background study of the island’s history, culture, and languages, combined with hands-on ethnographic, service-learning, and cross-cultural experiences during an Alternative Spring Break in Dominica. Permission of the instructor is required.
  
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    ANTH 390. Topics in Cultural Studies


    3.00
    Crosslisted: SOCI 390 

    This course explores contemporary culture through a “cultural studies” lens, an interdisciplinary perspective interested in using empirical knowledge to encourage more just human relations. Specific topics of investigation will vary by semester, but each course will cover cultural studies’ intellectual history and its application to cultural expressions found in everyday life, film, music, and text.
  
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    ANTH 391. Study Abroad


    1.00 - 6.00
    Designed to encourage students to enhance their academic programs through studying abroad. Arrangements must be made with a faculty member who will direct the study with preparatory instructions and final requirements. Prerequisite: Permission of Department Head
  
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    ANTH 395. Special Topics in Anthropology


    3.00
    Examination of selected topics which are of current importance to anthropology. (May be taken for a maximum of six hours credit toward the major.)
  
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    ANTH 405. Topics in Linguistic Anthropology


    3.00
    Examines current issues in the anthropology of language. Topics vary by semester, but each course will include hands-on analysis of social interaction and/or investigation of contemporary case studies of language policy, ideologies and use.
  
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    ANTH 410. Spatial Analysis for Anthropologists


    4.00
    The course teaches students how to identify and solve anthropological problems with spatial dimensions. Hands-on experience is stressed in the acquisition, analysis and display of a spatial data using Geographic Information Systems software. Topics include mapping of race and ethnicity, the spatial distribution of cultural variables, and human modification and use of the landscape. Prerequisites: ANTH 195 , ANTH 196  OR ANTH 197 
  
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    ANTH 415. Anthropological Genetics


    3.00
    Surveys the theory and methods of evolutionary genetics as applied to human evolution and human diversity. Emphasizes human evolution as illuminated by genetics, as well as the intersection of human genetics with social issues such as racism, bioethics, and eugenics. ANTH 196  is the prerequisite or permission of instructor.
  
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    ANTH 420. Evolution of Human Behavior


    3.00
    An exploration of human behavior from an evolutionary perspective. Darwinism, life history theory, and the fundamentals of heredity will be reviewed and employed in the analysis of human behavior, from bipedalism to morality. Data from the fossil and archeological records, genetics, non-human primate studies, and ethnographic fieldwork will be used. Prerequisite: ANTH 196  or permission of instructor.
  
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    ANTH 425. Afro-Latin America


    3.00
    Latin America and the Caribbean were the first and largest parts of the Western Hemisphere to be populated by Africans. Afro-Latin America examines cultural formations African peoples brought to these regions. Beginning with an overview of the slave trade, it examines the histories of African and African-descent peoples in a range of Latin American countries, as well as contemporary Afro-Latin American culture(s). Prerequisite: One course in either Latin American or Africana Studies (any discipline); upper-division status or permission of instructor.
  
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    ANTH 430. Primate Conservation Biology


    3.00
    A discussion-based course that examines the impact of human activities on biodiversity, with an emphasis on the primates. Concepts and theories in conservation biology will be explored and applied to understanding the threats to wild primates and evaluating conservation strategies. Cultural and political perspectives and philosophical and ethical arguments for conserving biodiversity will also be considered. Prerequisite: ANTH 196  or BIO 124 or permission from instructor.
  
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    ANTH 435. Ethnographic Genres and Methods


    4.00
    Explores ethnographic methods and conventions of ethnographic writing through close reading, analysis, and production of ethnographic texts. Students develop critical skills in assessing ethnographic practice by examining how ethnographies are shaped by authors fieldwork experiences, intellectual traditions, and theoretical perspectives. Students engage in fieldwork and craft their own ethnographic accounts. Prerequisite: ANTH 375 
  
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    ANTH 436. Afro-Latin America


    3.00
    Crosslisted: HIST 436 

    Latin America and the Caribbean were the first and largest parts of the Western Hemisphere to be populated by Africans. Afro-Latin America examines cultural formations Africans brought to these regions. Beginning with an overview of the slave trade, it examines the histories of Africans and African-descent peoples throughout Latin America, as well as contemporary Afro-Latin American culture(s).
  
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    ANTH 441. Oral History and Social Justice


    3.00
    This course will explore the theoretical and methodological questions that have been raised in the field of oral history related to evidence and objectivity, personal and collective memory, narrative structure, ethical and social justice. Throughout the course students will conduct multiple interviews in the Shenandoah Valley and prepare a final presentation based on this material. Prerequisite: HIST 395  or permission of instructor
  
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    ANTH 455. Archaeology Methods


    4.00
    A review of the nature of inquiry, recent theory, and the means by which archaeologists acquire, analyze, and interpret their data. In addition to practical training in methods of analysis used in contemporary practice, students will gain experience in designing, conducting, and reporting archaeological research. ANTH 195  and ANTH 197  are the prerequisites
  
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    ANTH 485. Anthropology Course Assistantship


    1.00 - 6.00
    Students participate as course assistants in anthropology. Assistantships provide students with a sense of what it is like to teach an anthropology course by allowing them to work closely with faculty members through different phases of course preparation, presentation and evaluation. Assistantships also allow for a deeper understanding of course material by providing opportunities for student assistants to lead discussions and to help their peers review the material outside of the classroom. Junior or Senior Standing Only
  
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    ANTH 486. Internship in Anthropology


    1.00 - 6.00
    Designed to encourage students to enhance their academic programs by employing and refining anthropological skills through internships in public or private agencies. Arrangements must be made with a faculty member who will oversee the internship.
  
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    ANTH 490. Special Studies


    1.00 - 3.00
    Course offers students an opportunity to do independent study under staff supervision. (Admission only by recommendation of the instructor and permission of the department head.)
  
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    ANTH 490A. Special Studies


    3.00
  
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    ANTH 490B. Special Studies


    2.00
  
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    ANTH 490C. Special Studies


    3.00
  
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    ANTH 492. Material Culture


    3.00
    Crosslisted: ARTH 492 , HIST 492 

    A broad introduction to the multidisciplinary “field” of material culture studies through readings, written assignments, in-class exercises, and field trips. The course introduces ways of looking at and learning from objects and examines how scholars from several disciplines have used material culture in their work. Instructor’s permission required to waive HIST 395  prerequisite for non-history majors. History Majors must have earned credit for HIST 395  prior to enrolling in this course.
  
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    ANTH 494. Field Tech in Archeology


    4.00 - 8.00
    Laboratory course directed at teaching students the basic field techniques and procedures of historic and prehistoric archaeology. Classroom lectures will present techniques and relevant aspects of method and theory.
  
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    ANTH 494A. Field Tech in Archeology


    4.00 - 8.00
  
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    ANTH 494B. Field Tech in Archeology


    4.00 - 8.00
  
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    ANTH 494C. Field Tech in Archeology


    4.00 - 8.00
  
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    ANTH 494D. Field Tech in Archeology


    4.00
 

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